Fungal skin infections
Fungal or fungal infections are caused by fungi that infect the skin. They are frequent, contagious and curable diseases with correct treatment.
How are they produced?
In general, fungi are microorganisms that grow best in hot, humid conditions . For this reason, many mycoses tend to be contracted in public places such as swimming pools, showers or changing rooms , places frequented by many people and where the required conditions of humidity and heat exist.
In addition, fungi can behave as opportunistic germs , that is, they take advantage of a situation in which the patient has a decrease in their defenses. This occurs, for example, in elderly patients, diabetics or patients treated with drugs for cancer (chemotherapy) among others.
Depending on the area of the skin affected, the main mycoses are:
- Tinea pedis or athlete’s foot : occurs when fungi infect the feet . The most common form manifests with itching, flaking and sometimes a bad smell between the toes. In other forms, the appearance is dry and scaly all over the sole of the foot.
- Nail tinea or onychomycosis: its frequency increases after 50 years. When it affects the feet , the first toes are the most frequently infected. The most common form is manifested as a brown or yellowish spot at the end of the nail , which slowly grows and progresses towards the base of the nail. It is common for the nail to thicken, and a powdery material forms inside. In the hands , the most frequent form affects the sides of the nail, and it typically occurs in people who get their hands very wet. It is usually accompanied by inflammation and suppuration in the surrounding skin (paronychia or “nail”).
- Tinea corporis or circinate herpes: infection that affects any area of the body. It is manifested by ring-shaped plaques that flake off at the edge and heal through the center. They can be single or multiple . It is common to get it from infected animals (cats, rabbits, etc.).
- Tinea manuum or ringworm of the hands :: so called when it affects the hands .
- Tinea capitis or querion: fungal infection of the scalp usually manifests itself with highly inflamed and suppurative plaques. They can cause irreversible destruction of hair and areas of alopecia (bald spots) if not treated in time.
In most cases the dermatologist diagnoses these infections only on examination. If there are doubts with other diagnoses, a scraping of the desquamation that they produce can be done to practice a culture or a microscope examination. At other times, a small biopsy may be done.
There are several active antibiotics against fungi ( antifungals ) that can be used topically (in cream) or orally (in pills). The type of infection and its extension will indicate one route or another. In general, antifungals tend to be taken longer than antibiotics against other germs such as bacteria.
With regard to foot infections (athlete’s foot), prevention is aimed at the use of flip-flops in public places such as showers, swimming pools, changing rooms, etc., especially in athletes who regularly frequent them. In addition, it is easy for the fungus to grow if there are conditions of humidity and heat, so it is advises by skin specialist in south delhi to take some time after the shower to dry your feet well , and shoes that facilitate perspiration should be worn.
Eczema: causes, types, symptoms and treatment
The appearance of water pimples on the body can be a consequence of dermatitis and can cause itching and inflammation
The dermatitis or eczema is a skin disease characterized by inflammation and itching. It does not have a single cause, and it can have internal or external triggers. It is a very common problem, especially in developed countries. It is not contagious.
Types of dermatitis or eczema
In general, eczema is classified as endogenous (due to internal or unidentifiable causes) and exogenous (due to external causes).
The atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema is a common problem in the developed world. Its frequency is increasing in parallel with other diseases of an allergic nature such as allergic rhinitis, asthma or food allergies.
- Dyshidrotic eczema or dyshidrosis manifests as very itchy blisters or blisters, and can appear on the palms, on the lateral aspect of the fingers, and also on the soles of the feet. Your triggers are not unique and they are not entirely identifiable. In some patients, dyshidrosis appears as a reaction to sweat or heat. In others, flare-ups occur during times of emotional stress.
Irritant contact dermatitis is a very common problem in professions that subject their hands to continuous washing with soaps or detergents. For this reason it has also been called “housewife dermatitis”. Eczema is caused by direct chemical damage to the skin , without an allergy mechanism.
- Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by allergic sensitization in predisposed people. There are numerous substances capable of causing contact allergy. Diagnosis is made by specific allergy tests tests (patch tests).
- Asthetic eczema or craquelé eczema is caused by dry skin. The most frequent cause is the use of unsuitable soaps or detergents and the lack of hydration of the skin. It is especially common in the elderly.
- Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of dermatitis . It mainly affects children and its causes lie in two alterations: on the one hand, a skin hydration defect that makes it more sensitive, and on the other, an increase in allergic sensitivity sometimes manifested in the bronchial tubes (allergic asthma). ), the mucosa of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and the digestive tract (food allergies). Atopic dermatitis is especially common in childhood, manifested by eczema that affects the folds of the arms and knees, the face, and other areas of the body. As a general rule, atopic dermatitis improves with age, except in cases of adult atopic dermatitis, a disease that can become serious and extremely disabling.
All types of eczema have one common symptom: itching . In addition, the skin shows variable alterations ranging from red skin (erythema), to peeling, the formation of rough or scratched areas and the appearance of pimples or blisters with water inside.
In general, a dermatologist can recognize eczema with the naked eye, although sometimes it is necessary to resort to a skin biopsy (taking a skin sample and examination under a microscope) to differentiate it from other diseases. In the case of some exogenous eczemas such as allergic contact dermatitis, the complete diagnosis and identification of the triggers is done through allergy tests.
The test is called patch or epicutaneous test, which consists of causing a reaction to different substances by sticking a patch with them on the skin . The standard test battery of 24 substances includes the most frequent triggers in our environment (metals, gums, drugs, dyes, perfumes, preservatives, etc.). There are also batteries of more specific tests depending on the suspicion in each individual case.